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kBOS Applied Knowledge Engineering Methodologyknowledge management


kBOS Introductionknowledge management
kBOS Technology Innovationsknowledge management
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kBOS Strategic Knowledge Managementknowledge management
kBOS Process Optimisationknowledge management
Multilevel Enterprise Integrationknowledge management
Advanced Business Intelligenceknowledge management
The kBOS Platform Software Characteristicsknowledge management
kBOS Workflowknowledge management
kBOS Content Managementknowledge management
kBOS Web Services Middlewareknowledge management
kBOS Datawarehousingknowledge management
kBOS Unified Solutionsknowledge management
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Multilevel Enterprise Integration

Multilevel  integration

kBOS offers a single architectural framework that achieves application to application (A2A) integration but which also leverages the greater business potential  of business-to-business process (B2B)  integration.

Existing solutions have tended towards a technology-first approach that has focused on the integration of individual applications. While a point-to-point integration (between two applications) may solve the immediate business requirement, investment in the implementation does not carry over to the next solution—it is not reusable.

Changes to the business process or requirements could require extensive rewiring, thereby inhibiting the ability to move quickly for competitive advantage. An inability to connect and extend applications such as marketing, sales, web site and call centre, is increasing costs and can result in missed revenue opportunities.

kBOS solutions acknowledge the significance of the problem of application integration, as well the need to address all different integration layers (process, timing, data etc). kBOS facilitates the integration of legacy and packaged applications into process nodes where information interchange takes place. Using web services, flexible integration along different business networks can be achieved. This approach achieves the objectives of web service orchestration.


kBOS System Integration methodology

The key objectives are :

·   Address integration at different levels (semantic, syntactic, process, data etc)

·   Use only open standards

·   Introduce flexibility

·   Offer customised services to different customers without cost penalties

·   Accommodate legacy as well as future applications and technologies.


The kBOS methodology is described in the following diagram. First  integration strategy is determined taking into account integration requirements, standards and technologies and the characteristics of the applications to be integrated.


There are four level to Enterprise Application Integration requirements

The lowest level of EAI is concerned with packaging and transporting the data between applications. Open, standard and low cost protocols such as HTTP can be used for  the transportation of business documents.

At the next level XSLT-based translations simplify the transformation of data formats between systems.

At the third level business rules embedded as scripts within XSL style sheets control what happens in the two lower layers of integration (data & transportation).

The fourth layer provides for the management of complete business processes. It also covers the last missing piece of system integration: enterprise workflow.


Application Integration Methods

Application Adapters/drivers. Adapters are responsible for getting information in and out of the application, and performing any necessary transformations along the way.


Data-based integration If the integration involves the sharing of information, it can take place at the level of the data store. Assuming the existence of a database containing the information to be shared, the integration adapter is responsible for translating from a query's result set to an XML document. Conversely, when the application receives information in the form of XML, the adapter performs a reverse translation and maps the document elements to the appropriate database entities.


Integration at the API level can be achieved through handcrafted adapters. Using an off-the-shelf XML parser, an adapter can be constructed that will translate from the received XML to an object model or function/method invocation. Similarly, information from the application can be transformed to an XML document for transmittal. For transformation between different XML schemas, however, an XSL Transformations (XSLT) processor will be required.


Gateways When the application already utilizes middleware, such as MOM or CORBA, then the adapter provides a gateway. This gateway can receive the XML messages, decide which components need to be notified, and perform the necessary translation.


kBOS provides a solution for business and system integration that is open, flexible and long term/strategic rather than short term and tactical.

It provides support for integrating applications, data, documents and services through an Internet platform that uses open standards such as XML, XSL, Java, Web Services and HTTP.

Application Integration (EAI)

·   The Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) business is one of the fastest growing markets today, with industry experts quoting a market growth toward $7 billion over the next few years.

·   EAI  is a complex and resource intensive task  (35% of a typical IT budget is spent on integration projects).

·   EAI technologies include data translation and transformation, rule- and content-based routing, and application connectors or adapters to packaged applications such as ERP and other enterprise resource planning and e-business applications.

·   Proprietary integration tools (middleware) can provide solutions:

·   proprietary middleware creates a tight coupling between the application and the middleware

·   expensive technical skills are required for modifications.




Integration is a complex task!

·   What are the differences in interfaces, protocols?

·   Are there differences in the platform technologies used?

·   How are messages and data formatted? Are the data structures similar?

·   What event triggers the action, when and how is it invoked?

·   How are messages delivered? What guarantees of delivery are required?

·   Is real time transaction integrity needed? Is two phase commit needed?

·   Is it to be Web enabled?

·   Are the business concepts the same?


SOA and WEB Services Developments
The Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and related Web Services technologies are providing the basis for developing and managing distributed systems with significant improvements on integration and reuse.   

Possibly the main reason for the anticipated imrovements is

that the SOA and WEB Services technologies are based on standards really supported by the major software vendors.

Web services standards including WSDL, WSEL, UDDI, BPEL are creating a new horizon for  system integration in unison to the business networking developments.


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